Why Is Paddle Shift Killing the Manual Transmission, and is it a good thing?

I’m a bit old school about driving like feeling the road (yeah even the pot holes!!) and not floating, making a car hit the curve just right and shoving the clutch pedal to the floor and find the next gear! That’s all part of the enjoyment for me. But paddle shifting is here to stay and I’ll be disappointed if the clutch pedal disappears from all new cars.

I’m sharing this article from Mind Over Motor as it hits on some key points I can relate too when it comes to this “new fangled”  🙂  way of changing gears.


Mind Over Motor

I am someone who has publicly lamented the decline of the manual transmission. But I’m also someone who has enjoyed the merits of modern paddle shift gearboxes in many cars.

I find myself very much split on this issue, so lets take a look at the various reasons why shifter paddles are replacing a gear lever and a third pedal in some of our favorite cars.

Note: To clear this up right away, by “paddle shift” I mean cars with automated manual gearboxes, either dual-clutch or single-clutch. I am in no way talking about anything like a Toyota Camry with the “sport package”, which has paddle shifters as a marketing gimmick.

1. More versatile on the road. (Having your cake and eating it too)

If you had something like a Lamborghini Diablo back in the mid 1990s chances are you had a lot of fun out on the open road. However, when you got into town and hit traffic, the heavy clutch made driving the car more of a $250,000 chore than an enjoyable way to spend a weekend afternoon. Considering the average speed of traffic on most roads is around 25-30mph, you’d be spending far more time putting along slowly than stretching the car’s legs. It’s a wonder why most owners hardly ever drove their exotic cars.

Today, Lamborghini only offers their cars with a paddle shift transmission. The sales numbers spoke for themselves, once paddle shift was offered back around 2004, demand for manual Lambos simply fell off.

Paddle shift basically solved all the issues described above with the Diablo. Now, in an Aventador, you can rip your way into town and then just put the car in automatic mode when you hit traffic. You have a car that is a ferocious supercar when you want one, but is also just as easy to drive as a Toyota Camry when you don’t. You are no longer writing a six-figure check to put yourself through misery. And I agree, that is a major plus, especially in cars that had very difficult manual gearboxes like most supercars did.

Chase the link below for the rest of the article and come back and let me know what YOU think!!

Thanks for reading


Source: Why Is Paddle Shift Killing the Manual Transmission, and is it a good thing?









Paddle Shifting the 997 | Autometrics Motorsports

Paddle Shifting the 997. Porsche 997 GT3 Cup Paddle Shifter. Created by Holinger, supplier of gearbox components to Porsche AG, this paddle shift system is designed specifically for the 997 GT3 Cup, replaces the tunnel-mounted sequential …
Agency Power’s Makes Paddle Shifting Look Good – Vivid …

Paddle shifters are the ultimate “cool factor” of a car. For people who experience paddle shifting for the first time, you might as well be Mario Andretti. They look super cool on the car, and are functionally genius. However, there …
2016 Cadillac ATS-V: A Track-Ready Cadillac? You Bet!

The automatic features several shift modes, as well as manual paddle-shifting, and the manual transmission features automatic rev-matching for drivers who haven’t yet mastered the heel-toe shift method, and it has a no-lift shift feature allowing you
Test Drive: 2015 Audi Q3 Quattro Technik

Nestled in the engine compartment is Audi’s familiar, silky-smooth direct-injected 2.0L TFSI turbocharged four-cylinder engine, mated to a traditional six-speed automatic transmission with Tiptronic paddle shifting. The engine churns out 200 horsepower

New 8-Speed Enables Quicker, More Efficient Corvette

I’m a GM fan. Have been since I  was a kid and currently drive a C6 Corvette as my daily.  I’m also a manual transmission guy so automatic transmission really aren’t a preferred option. Of course the new Corvettes has paddel-shifting which is state of the art, but what do I do with my left leg???!!!!


DETROIT – The all-new, GM-developed Hydra-Matic 8L90 paddle-shift eight-speed automatic transmission offered in the 2015 Corvette Stingray and Z06 enhances performance and efficiency, while delivering exceptional refinement and world-class shift responsiveness that rivals the world’s best dual-clutch transmissions.

In fact, in the 2015 Corvette Stingray, it enables a class-leading 29-mpg EPA highway estimate – a 3.5-percent increase in fuel economy over the previous six-speed automatic – and a quicker 0-60 time of 3.7 seconds, all while delivering wide-open-throttle upshifts quicker than those of the dual-clutch transmission offered in the Porsche 911.

“GM’s new 8L90 eight-speed automatic represents a rare win-win-win scenario for customers,” said Kavoos Kaveh, global chief engineer for eight-speed automatic transmissions. “It offers greater performance and efficiency, while weighing less than the transmission it replaces. That’s a rare accomplishment in the industry today – and one for which GM has been awarded more than two dozen patents.”

via New 8-Speed Enables Quicker, More Efficient Corvette.

2015 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray 2015 Hydra-Matic 8L90 (M5U) Eight Speed RWD Automatic Transaxle


Thanks for reading.


Chevrolet Corvette (C7)

seven-speed manual with rev-matching technology or an Hydra-Matic 8L90 eight-speed automatic transmission with paddle shifters, a
GM makes 8-speed automatic transmission standard on 2015 Chevrolet …

The GM-developed Hydra-Matic 8L90 eight-speed is approximately the same size and weight as the Hydra-Matic 6L80 six-speed automatic. Its 7.0 overall gear ratio spread is wider than GM’s six-speed automatic transmissions, providing a numerically higher …

Parking Lot Spot Light – ’65 Stang

As you know Parking Lot Spot Light is a piece where someone as parked their classic, muscle or other cool car in a local establishment to conduct some sort of business.

This time it was a local grocery store (car peeps need to eat) this beautiful fastback.

As Mustang fans know the 1964 Mustang flew out of the show room.  But I bet if they new what was coming in 1965 the might have waited.  I know if I but a 1964, I’d be looking to trade it the fastback came out.  Especially if I had saw this color with these stripes.

Fantastic Fastback

Fantastic Fastback

Love the scoop and the stripes!!!

Love the scoop and the stripes!!!

Didn't get to peek under the hood but I'm betting the 289 is still there.

Didn’t get to peek under the hood but I’m betting the 289 is still there.


The interior was just a great looking as the exterior.

The interior was just a great looking as the exterior.


Got a Mustang you love.  Drop me a note.

Thanks for reading.






2000 HP Vette – 3 runs down the track.

This is an awesome looking car.  Love how this intake is mounted lower front.

3rd trip down the track doesn’t go well.

Thanks for reading.


Transitioning to Modern Transmissions Prt 3


Posted By John Katz, June 25, 2012 in E-News, Engine & Drivetrain

Part 1  http://wp.me/pKHNM-1cL
Part 2  http://wp.me/pKHNM-1cL

From www.hotrodandrestoration.com

Switch Shifters

With manual transmissions in demand, it isn’t surprising to find that a fair number of vehicles—particularly muscle-era vehicles—that left the factory with an automatic transmission are being rebuilt with a manual. Frederick estimated that about 60 percent of American Powertrain’s classic muscle car customers are replacing an automatic transmission with a manual.

“[The conversion] is time-consuming, but not terribly complicated,” Frederick said. “Most of the parts bolt in.”

“It isn’t for the faint-of-heart or for anyone short on patience, but it’s do-able,” Hill added. “It’s just a matter of working through the process.”

Obviously you’ll need a pedal assembly; fortunately, according to Hill, there are a lot of aftermarket units that work quite well.

“That also gives you the option of using a hydraulic release bearing instead of a mechanical clutch linkage, which, depending on the application, can have some advantages,” Hill said. “It’s going to take a longer or shorter drive shaft. It’s going to take a different yoke on that driveshaft. The power bushing in the motor for the transmission input shaft may have to be changed. The starter could be affected by the diameter of the flywheel you put into the vehicle.

“You start at the back of the crankshaft and start matching componentry as well as possible—and if you can’t match it, then you have to compensate for it,” Hill continued. “I don’t think we’ve ever run into something we couldn’t convert, as long as we’re talking about American muscle.”

Many of the same issues crop up even when swapping one manual for another—for example, the customer who has a 454 and a Muncie and wants to put a modern six-speed in it.

Like many other projects, it’s significantly easier with older (i.e., pre-computer) hardware. If either the engine or the transmission came with computer controls, it gets a little more involved. And keep in mind that even some modern manuals now have computer controls—the GM transmission that comes with the LS engine, for example, with its skip-shift function.

Of course, some customers will want to go the other way and replace a factory manual with a new, high-tech automatic.

“It’s most important to make sure you have all the correct components—and that you make the finished job look appealing to the customer,” said Poff of TCI. “It’s the mounting that’s most likely to give you trouble.”

According to the experts, you’ll need to ensure that you have the right crossmembers and that there’s enough room inside the tunnel.

“There is no one-size-fits-all solution; every application is unique,” added Poff. “But once the physical installation is accomplished, it’s pretty straightforward to make everything operational.”

Either way, Nichols suggested finding out from the customer how critical it is to keep the car looking original, versus the cost to locate and install all of the correct original components.

As with so much else in hot rodding, the best results generally come from purchasing and installing complete systems.

“That goes for any product from any company in this business,” Frederick said. “We say, ‘Look, we have a turnkey kit. We figured it all out, and all you to do it plug and play.’ Buy it all from one source and you know all the parts are going to work together.”


Thanks for reading.



Transitioning to Modern Transmissions Prt 2

Posted By John Katz, June 25, 2012 in E-News, Engine & Drivetrain

From www.hotrodandrestoration.com

Stick Shifting

Meanwhile, manual-shift enthusiasts are upgrading to modern units packing more heavy-duty horsepower capacity—and more gear ratios.

“The generation that is now in their 60s can afford to build the cars that they wanted to build when they were in high school,” said Dick Hill, sales manager for Centerforce Clutches in Prescott, Arizona. And while those folks are not usually looking to build a race car, “they do want a four- or five-speed manual transmission,” he said.

More surprisingly, the trend extends beyond muscle cars and into traditional hot rods as well.

“I have friends who are building Deuce roadsters and they are putting LS motors in them, with a five- or six-speed manual transmission,” Hill said. “There are people who put Cadillac V-8s in 1949–1951 Mercs, and they want a stick. They want a three-pedal car. So that, too, is contributing to the growth of the high-performance clutch market.”

Hot rodders who already own or have owned multiple cars are now looking for something different.

“It’s like the people who buy their first Harley, they want it with every doo-dad they can get, where older bikers are turning back to the Knucklehead or even Flathead motors,” Hill said. “It’s the same with the hot rodder who already has two or three or four toys in the garage. The newest toy is going to be a stick car. And it’s for the same reason that someone will buy a brand-new Camaro, put 1,000 horsepower in it, and drive it on the street while blowing cold air and playing tunes. They want a manual not because they’re going to race it, but because they can have it. That’s what we hear all the time: ‘Because I can.’”

Rating the Ratios

American Powertrain of Cookeville, Tennessee, sells a broad range of high-performance drivetrain components, from complete crate engines to driveshafts and pedals. The company also distributes Tremec transmissions.

“The hot market right now is for the Magnum six-speed in a classic muscle car,” said Gray Frederick. “The Magnum is Tremec’s replacement for the T-56 is the aftermarket version of what you would get in a new Shelby GT500 or Camaro SS.” Frederick added that people are putting them into classic Mustangs Cougars, Camaros Firebirds, Barracudas and Challengers.

“The cars that people spend the most money on are the cars that [are] getting Magnum six-speeds,” Frederick added.

The Magnum is available with two sets of ratios, with the closer-ratio unit being the more popular of the two.

“The wide-ratio box has a 0.5 overdrive, which is very tall; a lot of engines can’t pull that much overdrive,” Frederick said.

But when it comes to overdrive, isn’t more better?

“That’s a myth,” Frederick said. “You can say, ‘Alright, I’m at the ragged edge of my cam, where if I’m on flat ground I can hold 70 mph all day.’ In a perfect world, that would be great. [I]n the real world, at some point you’re going to have to slow down for construction, and then speed up again; or you’re going to hit a rise, or something else that causes your engine to run out of breath. [T]hen you’re going to have to shift and that’s what you’re trying to avoid.

“You want to put it in sixth gear and leave it sixth gear,” he continued. “You don’t want to run down the highway at your cam’s peak performance, which would be 3,000–4,000 rpm. But you do want an rpm where your engine can pull your car up hills, and pass without dropping a gear. If every time you put your foot in the gas the engine lugs and you have to shift, that becomes very inefficient. We’re helping the customer understand that, even on the highway, you want to stay in your powerband. Otherwise the overdrive doesn’t do you any good.”

Frederick recommends the wide-ratio unit mostly for torquey big blocks.

“A Pontiac 455 will pull a stump out of the ground at 800 rpm; it doesn’t have trouble pulling a car at whatever rpm you’re running,” he said. “A Mopar 440 and some other big blocks with a lot of low-end grunt can usually handle the taller overdrive, too. And of course we’re dealing with a lot of electronically fuel-injected (EFI) engines now, and most of them have computers that can cope with low rpm very well.

They can retard the spark, they can meter the fuel differently, they can do all kinds of things.

“We help the customer choose a rearend ratio and a gear set that’s going to give them the best performance, from top to bottom,” Frederick said.

Pedal Pressure Another concern, according to Hill of Centerforce Clutches, is the physical effort once associated with a high-performance clutch.

“Our customers all ask, ‘How stiff is the pedal?’” he said. “That’s why we’ve been very successful, whether it’s a single-disc clutch for mild upgrade vehicle, or dual-disc unit that can hold 1,300 lbs./ft. of torque, we’ve been very successful in making them streetable.”

The average consumer, Hill said, could climb into a car with a Centerforce dual-disc clutch, push the pedal to the floor, and not realize that the car was modified.

“[T]he person who has a $75,000 Camaro or Corvette wants race-car performance without the race-car effort, so this is pretty significant,” he said.

Still, selecting the optimal clutch for any particular application is a complex task best left to experts.

“There are different linings and different friction materials on the pressure plate,” Hill said. “Heat is a factor. The first thing you have to know is how the vehicle is going to be used. Drag racers realize they are going to drive their car until they break it, where hot rodders don’t beat their cars up as bad. They are very proud of their cars and they want to drive them, not break them. And unless the car has been tubbed, a street machine generally runs smaller tires, so you want to tune the clutch for that.”

McLeod Racing of Placentia, California, offers its RST and RXT Street Twin clutches, both double-disc units that hold up to 1,000 horsepower, with the pedal pressure of a stock clutch, said President Paul Lee. Contributing to this low effort—and to easier installation—are McLeod’s hydraulic release bearings, “which fit most applications, replacing worn and/or outdated mechanical linkages,” he said.

“We’re selling more clutches for vehicles from the 1960s and 1970s, and installing a new hydraulic clutch in one of these cars can significantly reduce pedal effort,” said Rich Barsamian, national sales manager for Advanced Clutch Technology (ACT) in Lancaster, California. The company also offers a wide range of clutches for GM, Ford and Mopar applications, each rated for torque at the crankshaft.

When installing an aftermarket clutch, Barsamian suggested, “be sure to use the right amount of lube on the input shaft—it is possible to use too much. Be sure parts are free from dirt and oil, and washed in a non-petroleum-based cleaner such as acetone, alcohol or brake cleaner. Be sure to follow the correct torque and tightening sequence when installing the clutch cover—and do not use impact tools.”

Thanks for reading Part 3 coming up.

Mustang Muscle in the Mid 70′s Prt 2 1975

So we talked about the 1974 the year of big changes and small engines for the Mustang, now designated as Mustang II.  The entire idea was to return to the original roots of the Mustang, small every day car.  A far cry from the 300 plus horsepower  for the 1969-1973 Mach 1’s.  Of course it was a good idea, even though most of us don’t think so then or even now, but take a look at the numbers.The 1974 Mustang II sold over 380,000 units, and not a single V8 in the lot and that was 3 time as many Mustang as were sold in 1973.  Additionally, it was Motor Trends car of the year.  Now just between you and me,  the Motor Trend thing doesn’t do much for me (nor does the J.D. Powers award or any of the others) but it does work for some and judging by the numbers that sold at least 380,000 others.

In 1975 things changes a bit for the Mustang.  The infamous 302 returned, making a V8 an option.  But how as the possible?  What occurred that would bring back the a V8?  As mentioned above there were Mustang sold with V8 engines…”In the US“!!!!   But our friends south of the border (for those of you geographically challenged, that would be Mexico) were in fact selling Mustangs with V8.  Not many knew this was going on but once Hot Rod magazine got wind of it and put it in the front of its June ’74 issue, Ford decided that it need to “pony up” (come on now..that’s clever!!!!) and add the V8 for the 1975 edition of the Mustang II.


Your 1975 Mustang Line Up

The V8 was only available with an automatic transmission and was an option for the Ghia and the Mach I (even though the standard Mach 1 engine was the V6) as well as the other models and topped with a 2 barrel carb, it produced a whopping 122 hp or 140 hp depending on you proved the numbers.

So things were looking in 1975 although the number didn’t get even close to the 1974 model.

1975 Mustang Production Data:

69F Hatchback: 30,038

69R Hatchback – Mach 1: 21,062

60F Coupe: 85,155

60H Coupe – Ghia: 51,320

Total Production: 188,575

The total range of engine looked like this:

1975 Mustang Engines 

2.3 L – 140 cid, I-4, 2bbl, 88 hp

2.8 L – 171 cid, V6, 2bbl, 105 hp

5.0 L – 302 cid, V8, 2bbl, 140 hp





There were two transmission available a 4 speed manual and 3 speed automatic – but the 4 speed was not available for the 302.  That might seem odd but it may have to do with a fitment issue.

More coming up.

Thanks for reading.


Part and Parcel: State of the Swap


Each July the tiny town of Iola, Wis., is invaded by a sea of humanity and old iron. Many in attendance come strictly for the swap meet, which covers about 4,500 spaces.

Old car hobby doing well — at least ‘parts’ of it

By John Gunnell

“Don’t tell me there’s no recovery going on,” said Kurt Kelsey, an Iowa City-based vendor of new-old-stock Pontiac parts. According to Kelsey, his business this year is much better than it has been in a long time. “The phone has been ringing off the hook every day,” he said.

Kelsey’s observation about an up-tick in the market isn’t alone. Positive reports have come from other vendors, parts manufacturers and catalog retailers since late last fall. Despite an unsettled national economy and high unemployment, the old-car parts business seems to be in the midst of a boom.

During a Dynamat seminar at the Hot Rod & Restoration Show in March, company owner Scott Whitaker said one-day shipping of Dynamat automotive insulation products has been impossible to promise lately, because a large increase in orders has outpaced new hiring. “The bump in sales wasn’t expected and caught us off guard,” he said.

In early April, Bob Marx at Marx Parts in Arpin, Wis., came to visit us and he, too, was upbeat about his rising sales. Marx has been growing his inventory of vintage gaskets and rear main seals and is now rebuilding fuel pumps, but he said that new products do not explain all of the growth he is seeing. Like several other industry veterans, Marx pointed to the TV exposure of the Mecum and Barrett-Jackson auctions as a factor that’s helping the hobby grow. “New people are getting involved with old cars,” he said.

“After a winter of inactivity, old cars tend to leak or fail when they are put back on the road,” said Fred Kanter of Kanter Auto Products, who wonders if the business boom might be seasonal. “March, April, May every year, it’s the same thing — spring,” Kanter said. He pointed out that from spring through summer every year, his most popular items are fuel pumps and water pumps. “There’s a lot of factors that affect our business.”

You never know what you’ll see at big swap meets. You might come across a 1958 Edsel Pacer looking for a new home.

Al Suehring of Amherst Junction, Wis., specializes in ring gears and is another vendor who feels that the market is strong. We caught up with him at the Vintage Chevrolet Club of America dinner in Chilton, Wis., and he said that his business from the United States and abroad has been showing noticeable increases lately.

Ray Yager of Classic Industries said the level of growth of reproduction parts sales is “hard to keep up with.” His firm supplies MoPar, 1955-’57 Chevy, Camaro, Firebird, Nova, Impala and Chevy truck parts, and parts sales for these vehicles are moving in a positive direction. Yager thought the company’s 18-month-old MoPar parts catalog may account for some, but not all, of the huge increase in business he’s seeing. At least one vendor who solely deals in Chevrolets is likewise seeing increases in business.

“I’m having a really good year,” said Ron Kellogg of Chevy Tri-Power. “Rather amazing since I’m selling restored multi-carb setups in an era of $5-a-gallon gas prices. I’ve probably sold 25 Tri-Power units — normally a year’s worth — since November 2011.”

Kellogg’s increase proves that car collectors still want high-performance options on their classics.

In addition to new products, increased TV exposure of the hobby and added catalogs, parts suppliers said both the use of the Internet and increased advertising seem to be attracting more customers. Some big companies such as Mid America Motorworks and Eastwood have begun sending daily e-mails to thousands of potential customers. This takes time and money and employees with Internet skills, but their efforts are paying off with increased sales.

Many mom-and-pop operations that can’t afford daily e-marketing efforts are creating websites, Facebook pages, blogs and Twitter accounts to reach the marketplace. Hobby events aimed at professionals — such as the Racing & Performance Expo, the British Motor Trade Association and the SEMA Show — all offer seminars on Internet marketing techniques to these businesses.

As their marketing efforts become more sophisticated, parts sellers are also discovering that they can use print media to drive customers to their websites. Companies that never ran a print ad before are discovering that a clean-looking space ad with the right design and not much text can generate strong client interaction. The right picture of a car can catch the potential customer’s attention and a simple e-mail address or website link is all that’s needed to bring business knocking. A good ad will pay for itself much faster these days.

While an increase in parts sales would suggest that restoration shops and collector car sales are both on the increase, growth in those parts of the hobby isn’t as clear-cut as it is when a part is “checked out” in an online catalog. Collector car dealers such as Colin Comer of Colin’s Classic Auto in Milwaukee and market players such as Joe Bortz are fairly universal in the belief that collector car prices are off 15-20 percent in today’s market. Some restoration shop owners say that they are busier than they’ve ever been, but others say the opposite.

From all of the indications we have seen and all the comments we’ve heard, it appears the old-car parts niche is improving for 2012 and this trend will presumably filter down to other parts of the hobby. The hobby is changing in many ways, and the wise businessmen in it are getting more sophisticated as the market grows.

Sources mentioned

Kurt Kelsey
NOS Pontiac parts

automotive insulation products

Marx Parts
vintage gaskets

Kanter Auto Products
mechanical components

Al Suehring
ring gears

Classic Industries
restoration parts

Ron Kellogg
most tri-power units

Joe Bortz
vintage vehicle sales

Mid America Motorworks
Corvette and VW restoration parts

restoration equipment

Colin’s Classic Auto
vintage vehicle sales

1970 Mustang Coupe for Sale – Project car.

1970 Coupe – automatic – desirable 289 engine  – (all there).  $2,600.00

Kim’s husband passed and she’d really like this car go to someone who will restore it and not part it out.  Car will need some work.  If you purchase this car I’ll help project manage the restoration. Might even have some spare part for ya.  Car is here in Tucson.

“1970 mustang coupe for sale. It was my husbands, but he passed away and I don’t have the money to fix it up the way he wanted it to be. I don’t want to sell it for a parts car, I would like to sell it to someone who will restore it and take care of it. It did run at one point, but it has been sitting under a cover for the last 7 years or so so it won’t start. He was in the process of replacing the vinyl roof, so that is why the top is rusty. It probably needs to be replaced. The engine is a 289. All the parts he had bought comes with the car. Extra doors, windows, hood, tail lights…and a few other things. This car is a definite project car!! Any questions, please feel free to email.”


There's your 289

Going to need a little work.



Here is Kim’s link.


Thanks for reading.



Parking-Lot Spotlight 1955 Chevy Belair

Note: Updated to correct mis-Identification of this parking-lot find.  It is in fact a 1955.  The main details that denote the difference is the placement of the Chevy and BelAir badging and grile.

So I’m lucky. I live in a place where there is not prone to any type of natural disasters, we don’t much rain and it only snow when it’s a cold day, you know where.

It’s also a place were you don’t have to put way your collectible set of wheels, you can drive the year would and a lot of folks do.

Here is my latest parking-lot find.

It is a 1955 Chevy, 2 door Belair.  Yeah, I know it’s a couple years before the super wonderful 1957’s came out, but I like these shoe box cars, with their very clean lines especially the 2 door version and I particularly like the lines of the BelAir convertible.  It reminds me of the clean lines for my 1966 Chevy Impala convertible.

Love the red and white.  Fantastic chrome.

Wheel aren’t ordinal but I think that are great for this car.

Look at the stance! It’s just great.

You gotta love that hood ornament!!


All Belair came standard with a 6 cylinder with about 353,00 produced, not counting convertibles.

The 6 was an overhead value, cast iron power plant with a displacement of 235.5.  With a 3 9/16 x 3 15/16 and a compression ratio of 7.5:1
these cars knocked out a whopping 115 hp.  The would breath through a Rochester one barrel Model 7007200 carb or a Carter one-barrel Model
2101S (for the Powerglide auto transmission) and a Rochester one-barrel Model 7007181 for the standard shift.

Thanks for reading.